Müfredat ve öğrenme patikaları
Making learning relevant to learners' lives is crucial. Relevant and stimulating curricula will assist teachers to create motivating lessons. Curricula should allow personalised forms of teaching and learning, to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and development of skills and competencies to the best ability of each child, while preserving the quality of the curriculum content and high expectations. Curricula at each stage should be aligned with subsequent levels of education and training or alternative training pathways.
Curricula should allow a variety of teaching methods, including collaborative teaching and learning, on-the-job learning and coaching, which have proven to be beneficial in (re-) engaging and motivating learners and keeping them in education and training. These teaching methods should maintain high quality standards for all learners. Studies show the positive impact of measures that do not include ability grouping or any type of segregation, and to guarantee that the needed resources are allocated appropriately for the diversity of needs in heterogeneous groups (see research reference below). Schools should implement the curricula in line with the needs of their learners, while maintaining high standards and expectations. The focus should be on providing culturally relevant curricula and ensuring that all students are fully equipped with the key competences they will need to avoid further social exclusion.
For learners who are truly struggling with mainstream curriculum, individualised learning paths or alternative education programmes (with teaching methods adapted to facilitate the learning) could help achieve equivalent learning objectives and (re-)integration into education and/or training. Study skills, as well as career guidance and education and other life skills should be fully integrated into the curriculum.
Find out more:
Braddock, J.H. and Slavin, R.E., Why ability grouping must end: Achieving Excellence and Equity in American Education, Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Students, Baltimore, MD, 1992.
Flecha, R., Successful Educational Action for Inclusion and Social Cohesion in Europe, Springer Publishing Company, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht London, 2015.
Wößmann, L. and Schütz, G., Efficiency and Equity in European Education and Training Systems. Analytical Report for the European Commission, European Commission, Brussels 2006.
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