Lærerutdanning og kontinuerlig profesjonsfaglig utvikling for lærerne
Both initial teacher education (ITE) and continuous professional development (CPD) are critical to ensure that teachers acquire the competences, skills and knowledge that allow them to respond to a range of classroom situations. Professional mastery is positively associated with teachers’ satisfaction. This is especially the case for teachers who work in more demanding contexts, such as schools with high levels of socio-economic and educational disadvantage and very heterogeneous groups of learners.
As part of their initial education, it is important that all student and novice teachers have opportunities to enhance their understanding of the nature, causes, and extent of early school leaving and educational disadvantage. It is essential that all teachers understand their key role in supporting the continuity of children's development and learning and in recognising early signs of learning difficulties or disengagement. This includes the need for teachers to collaborate effectively among themselves, with other professionals inside and outside the school, and with parents and families.
Student teachers should be offered practical exposure to the everyday reality of educational disadvantage and multicultural environments, for example through participation in work placements in schools with high early school leaving (ESL) rates or high levels of socio-economic disadvantage, or in activities with vulnerable families. All novice and newly appointed teachers should attend a systematic induction programme which is coherent with their needs, and participate in training including through a professional community and additional support by a well-qualified mentor.
All teachers should be encouraged to build networks with other teachers, experts and researchers for information exchange and knowledge building on how to improve inclusive education and tackle early school leaving. ITE and CPD are kept alive by a culture of relational trust in schools. In a climate of trust teachers can act as change agents. Instructional development through formative and summative assessment can be conducted. A focus on understanding ESL should become a core element of initial teacher education and continuous professional development programmes. CPD should be context-specific and aligned with learners’ and schools' specific needs and goals. Child participation should be given sufficient prominence within professional development programmes.
According to recent studies, there are several areas for which teachers say they have moderate or high need for CPD, including:
- Competence to diagnose learners at risk
- Causes and consequences of early school leaving
- Early school leaving prevention, intervention and remediation measures
- Working with parents
- Teaching cross-curricular skills
- Teaching in multilingual and multicultural settings
- Student career guidance and counselling
- Teaching learners with special educational needs
- New technology in the workplace, including schools
- Approaches to individualised teaching and learning
- Conducting classroom-based individual and collaborative research
Some of the most effective ways to implement CPD that also enhance collaborative cultures in schools are:
- Building professional communities and teacher networks
- Peer-to-peer learning
- Peer observation
- In-service (internal) training
- Mentoring and coaching among staff and other professionals;
- Setting aside time and space for collective reflection and inquiry among teachers on ways to solve current problems, improve learning, strengthen the school climate and exchange observations and experiences and views
- Online or face-to-face (external) courses
- Co-operative action research to test innovative teaching practices
- Teaching practices database to share knowledge on effective practices
- Regular teacher appraisals
Find out more:
European Commission, Strengthening teaching in Europe: New evidence from teachers compiled by Eurydice and CRELL, June 2015, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2015.
Bryk, A, Schneider, B., 'Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for School Reform', Creating Caring Schools, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2003, pp. 40–45
Carneiro, R., Looney, J., Vincent-Lancrin, S.,'Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Issues and agendas in education', European Journal of Education, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2015, pp. 524–535. doi: 10.1111/ejed.12158.
Cordingley, P. 'The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development', Research and Teacher Education: the BERA-RSA Inquiry, British Educational Research Association, RSA Action and Research Centre, United Kingdom
Day, L, Mozuraityte, N, Redgrave, K, McCoshan, A., Preventing early school leaving in Europe: Lessons learned from second chance education, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2013
Day, L., Percy-Smith, B., Ruxton, S., McKenna, K., Redgrave, K., Ronicle, J. Young, T., Evaluation of legislation, policy and practice of child participation in the EU: Research summary, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2015
De Witte, K., Nicaise, I., Lavrijsen, J., Van Landeghem, G., Lamote, C., Van Damme, J., ‘The Impact of Institutional Context, Educatin and Labour Market Policies on Early School Leaving: A comparative analysis of EU countries’, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 3., 2013, pp. 331 – 345. doi/10.1111/ejed.12034/
European Commission, Education and Training Monitor 2015, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2015.
European Commission, Schools Policy: A whole school approach to tackling early school leaving, Education & Training 2020, European Commission, Brussels, 2015.
IBE-UNESCO, Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education, Training Tools for Curriculum Development, International Bureau of Education. Geneva, 2016
Isac, M.M., Araújo, L., Dinis da Costa, P., Soto Calvo, E., Albergaria-Almeida, P., Teaching practices in primary and secondary schools in Europe: Insights from large-scale assessments in education, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2015.
Nairz-Wirth, E,, Feldmann, K., Diexer, B., Handlungsempfehlungen für Lehrende, Schulleitung und Eltern zur erfolgreichen Prävention von Schulabsentismus und Schulabbruch. Aufbruch zu einer neuen Schulkultur, Vienna University of Economics and Business. Vienna, 2012
Nairz-Wirth, E., Feldmann, K., Wendebourg, E., Professionalisierung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern im Bereich der Prävention und Intervention von Schul- und Ausbildungsabbruch, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, 2012
Nouwen, W., Clycq, N., Braspenningx, M., and Timmerman, C., Cross-case Analyses of School-based Prevention and Intervention Measures, Project Paper 6, RESl.eu Project, Centre for Migration and Intercultural Studies, University of Antwerp, 2016
OECD, TALIS 2013 Results: An international perspective on teaching and learning, OECD, Paris, 2014.
OECD, Supporting Teacher Professionalism: Insights form Talis 2013, OECD, Paris, 2016
Ryan, L., Lörinc, M., 'Interrogating early school leaving, youth unemployment and NEETS: Understanding local contexts in two English regions', Educação, Sociedade & Culturas, Vol. 45, 2015, pp. 33–54
Stéger, C., 'Review and Analysis of the EU Teacher-related Policies and Activities'. European Journal of Education, 49, No. 3, 2014, pp. 332–347. doi:10.1111/ejed.12089