Aptauja par pazemošanu skolās - Rezultāti

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How prevalent is bullying in Europe’s schools? What strategies are used to tackle it? What about online bullying through social media? The findings of our latest survey show that schools are active in meeting the challenge of bullying behaviour.

Pazemošana ir “vairākkārtēja, apzināta kādas personas vai grupas sāpināšana, ko dara cita persona vai grupa, kuru attiecībās nav varas līdzsvara.” Tā var būt fiziska, verbāla vai psiholoģiska, tā var notikt klātienē vai kibervidē.

Lai gan pazemošana var notikt gan skolā, gan ārpus tās, daudzas skolas atzīst, ka tās var spert soļus pazemošanas mazināšanai. Piemēram, skolas var apmācīt un atbalstīt skolotājus raisīt konstruktīvus dialogus ar iesaistītajiem skolēniem, lai saprastu iespējamos viņu uzvedības iemeslus un veidus, kā to pašregulēt. Līdzīgas sarunas jānotiek arī ar draugiem un vecākiem. Cenšoties novērst pazemošanu, skolotājs var iesaistīt visu klasi konfliktu risināšanas lomu spēlē drošā vietā, jo viena no metodēm ir empātijas un sociālo iemaņu pilnveidošana

Pētījumi atklāj, ka visas skolas pieejas, kad skolēni, vecāki un profesionāļi kopā strādā, lai veidotu iekļaujošu vidi, var mazināt pazemošanas gadījumu skaitu.

The survey on school bullying was open on School Education Gateway from 25 March to 12 May and gathered a total of 515 responses.


Rezultāti (N=515)

1. Cik bieži pēdējā mācību gada laikā esi dzirdējis par skolēna pazemošanu tavā vai tev zināmā skolā?

Poll on school bullying - Graph 1

According to the 515 survey respondents, bullying takes place once or twice a month in almost half (47%) of respondents’ schools or a school they know and bullying happens regularly in close to 14% of the respondents’ schools. In 35% of respondents’ schools, bullying is rare (32%) or never takes place (3%).

2. Kad tavā vai tev zināmajā skolā notiek skolēna pazemošana, kas tiek darīts? Izvēlies visas atbilstošās atbildes.

  • Pastāv "nulles tolerances" politika pazemošanas gadījumos, tāpēc varmāka tiek momentāni sodīts, ja tiek novērots vai atklāts pazemošanas gadījums
  • Speciālais pret-pazemošanas darbinieks (apmācīts skolotājs, padomnieks, sociālais darbinieks) risina situāciju un informē par to
  • Skola vai klases audzinātājs atvēl īpašu laiku mācību plānā visiem skolēniem izglītojošai nodarbībai pret pazemošanu
  • Iesaistītie tiek uzaicināti uz sarunu, kurā var paskaidrot, kas notika
  • Iesaistīto skolēnu vecāki tiek uzaicināti uz tikšanos ar skolotāju un skolas vadību
  • Skolotājs uzsāk sarunu vai risināšanas seansu ar varmāku un upuri
  • Uz klasi tiek aicināts padomnieks, lai veicinātu izpratni par pazemošanu
  • Skolā nav vienotas politikas pazemošanas situācijām, tāpēc skolotāji tās risina paši

Poll on school bullying - Graph 2

Respondents indicated that a range of actions are taken by the school to deal with incidences of bullying, such as a dialogue between the parties involved (66%), a meeting with the parents of the students involved (63%) and a teacher-initiated resolution session between bully and victim (45%).

The most frequently mentioned longer-term actions are dedicated time in the curriculum for anti-bullying education sessions with all students (mentioned by 43% of respondents), a designated and trained staff member to deal with bullying issues and raise awareness (35%), and a school counsellor invited to talk to the class in order to raise awareness of bullying (30%).

Almost one in four schools (24%) are reported to have a zero-tolerance approach to bullying while, at the other extreme, one in five schools have no agreed policy, leaving teachers to deal with the issue by themselves.

3. Kuras no šīm stratēģijām tiek izmantotas tavā vai tev zināmā skolā, lai novērstu un risinātu pazemošanu?

  • Nodarbības, izmantojot speciālus resursus par pazemošanas tēmu, piemēram, video, darbnīcas un lomu spēles.
  • Skolotāju apmācību par pazemošanas risināšanu
  • Konfliktu risināšanas apmācību skolēniem
  • Skolas konsultanta seansus ar skolēniem
  • Uzsvars uz sociālo un emocionālo mācīšanos
  • Pastiprināta skolas uzraudzība
  • Skolā nav ieviestas stratēģijas pazemošanas novēršanai

Poll on school bullying - Graph 3

Again, respondents indicated that their school or a school they know adopted a variety of anti-bullying strategies. The most frequently mentioned strategy, mentioned by 51% of participants, is lessons using resources specifically addressing bullying, followed by school counsellor sessions with pupils (38%), increased school supervision (33%), teacher training to address bullying (31%), an emphasis on social and emotional learning (29%) and conflict resolution training for pupils (27%). Consistent with the previous question, almost 20% of respondents indicated that there are no strategies to prevent bullying in their school.

4. Kas palīdzētu skolās ieviest iekļaujošāku pret-apcelšanas vidi? Sakārto variantus pēc nozīmīguma, kur 1 ir visnoderīgākā aktivitāte, kas skolai būtu jāpaveic.

  • Atbalsts radot, izmantojot un atrodot saistītus izglītojošus resursus, piem., video, stāstus, u.c.
  • Apmācība skolotājiem, kā novērst, atpazīt un risināt dažādās pazemošanas formas
  • Vecāku atbalsts un sadarbība, iekļaujot pret-pazemošanas stratēģijas skolā
  • Elastīgums mācību plānā, piem., speciāls laiks, kurā runāt par pazemošanu, iekļaušanu dažādos mācību priekšmetos.

Poll on school bullying - Graph 4

Opinions vary in relation to the most helpful strategies to foster a more inclusive anti-bullying environment in schools.

While all strategies presented were indicated as helpful to some extent, teacher training on how to prevent, recognise and deal with various forms of bullying is ranked first and seems to be considered the most helpful strategy (49%). Only 6% ranked it least helpful.

Other strategies were also ranked high: flexibility in school curricula, e.g. dedicated time for anti-bullying education or inclusion of the topic in various subjects (20% indicated this as most helpful) and support and collaboration with parents in order to include anti-bullying strategies in the school (18% indicated this as most helpful).

The least helpful strategy according to almost half of respondents was to further support schools in creating, adapting and finding relevant educational resources such as videos and stories (45%).

5. Kādas stratēģijas ir ieviestas tavā vai tev zināmā skolā, lai risinātu kiberterorizēšanu?

  • Speciālas nodarbības par drošību internetā: praktiski norādījumi, kā sargāt tiešsaistes identitātes, personīgas informācijas publicēšanas riski, tīkla etiķete, u.c.
  • Izpratnes veicināšana (uzrunas skolā, informācija vecākiem) par tiešsaistes komunikācijas un sociālo mediju ieguvumiem un riskiem
  • Stratēģijas, kā risināt gadījumus, kad skolēni iesaistīti kiberterorizēšanā, kā arī to risināšana
  • Nav rīcības plāna kiberterorizēšanas gadījumu risināšanai

Poll on school bullying - Graph 5

Online bullying presents additional challenges for schools. According to the survey respondents, raising awareness – through school talks or information for parents – about the benefits and risks of online interaction and social media is the most common strategy used in their school in order to address cyberbullying (65%). Tagging some way behind are specific online safety lessons with practical ways to manage online identities (36%) and strategies to deal with cases of cyberbullying and their resolution (27%). Over one in four respondents (27%) indicated that there are no actions taken in order to address cyberbullying in their school.

Kopsavilkums

The survey shows that occasional bullying incidents occur in almost half of the respondents’ schools or schools they know (47%). If we add to these the bullying incidents that take place on a regular basis (14%), then we see that schools are very often challenged by the bullying phenomenon and seek ways to address it.

A mix of approaches is used by schools to deal with individual cases of bullying. These approaches include resolution meetings and dialogue between the pupils involved, as well as the involvement of their parents. Schools also adopt longer-term actions and approaches such as classroom-based approaches that include sessions with the school counsellor, curricula-based intervention or a zero-tolerance policy in the school. Nevertheless, 20% of respondents indicated that there is no agreed policy in the school and teachers must tackle the issue as they see fit.

Looking at strategies to prevent bullying, a mix of approaches is again used in respondents’ schools, including classroom-based strategies such as dedicated educational resources, conflict resolution and training of pupils; staff-based strategies such as teacher training and involvement of experts, e.g. school counsellor; and increased school supervision. Nevertheless, almost 20% of respondents indicated that no strategies are implemented in the school in order to prevent bullying.

As far as cyberbullying is concerned, existing strategies range from prevention through awareness-raising and targeted lessons to a more case-based approach that addresses cyberbullying when it occurs. Nevertheless, almost 30% of respondents indicated that no actions are taken in their school to prevent cyberbullying.

Although various actions and strategies are already implemented in schools in order to prevent and tackle different forms of bullying, teacher training on how to prevent, recognise and deal with various forms of bullying is seen as the most helpful strategy to foster a more inclusive anti-bullying environment. A whole-school approach, focusing on providing teachers with the right skills and tools to address bullying, together with targeted educational resources and clear school policies, can help to better address and prevent cases of bullying.


Pielikums: respondentu loma

Poll on school bullying - Graph 6