4.1. Communication and information
Research has shown that the benefits of parental involvement depend largely on its quality. Schools have an important role to play in developing and maintaining communication and information flows with parents. Most European countries have legal provisions in place to ensure the right of parents to be informed about their children's schooling. However, this may not be very effective for parents and families that are most distant from the school culture. In addition to formal arrangements for communication, a set of complementary measures are needed, to reach different groups of parents, including those with different parenting styles and levels of 'distance' from the school.