3.5. Learning and assessment
Teachers should be allowed the flexibility to adapt and personilise teaching to meet learners' diverse needs. Learner-centred approaches, including more active and interactive techniques, such as enquiry- and project-based teaching and learning and cooperative learning have proven to be beneficial. School and class organisation, including the use of space and time, should support the variety of student needs and teaching methods.
Teaching and learning in schools should also allow for a range of appropriate assessments, with a greater focus on diagnostic and formative approaches. Research has shown that timely, specific feedback to help close learning gaps (with learning tailored to specific needs) has a significant impact on learning including for marginalised learners. When they are fully involved in the process, learners are able to track their progress over time and to build their confidence in their ability to succeed. Formative and diagnostic assessment (including student self-assessments and family members' inputs) are powerful tools to raise achievement.
Find out more:
Black, P. and D. Wiliam, ‘Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment’, Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 92,2010, pp. 81 – 90.
De Witte, K., Nicaise, I., Lavrijsen, J., Van Landeghem, G., Lamote, C., Van Damme, J., ‘The Impact of Institutional Context, Educatin and Labour Market Policies on Early School Leaving: A comparative analysis of EU countries’, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 3., 2013, pp. 331 – 345. doi/10.1111/ejed.12034/
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice/Cedefop, Tackling Early School Leaving from Education and Training in Europe: Strategies, Policies and Measures, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2014.
OECD, Policy Brief: Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms (November), OECD, Paris, 2005.