Philosophy for Children (P4C)
This intervention is an educational approach centred on nurturing philosophical enquiry, originally developed by Professor Matthew Lipman in the USA in 1970. The aim of the programme is to create a classroom ‘community of enquiry’ and to help children become more willing and able to question, reason, construct arguments and collaborate with others.
Materials recommended by the Society for the Advancement of Philosophical Enquiry and Reflection in Education (SAPERE) include stories, poems, scripts, short films, images, artefacts, and picture books. Feedback from teachers and pupils suggested that P4C had a beneficial impact on wider outcomes such as pupils’ confidence to speak, patience when listening to others, and self-esteem.